Graduate College

FM: Other text considerations

Other text considerations

Right Justification
Justifying both margins is not recommended because it can cause a number of problems, especially in the references. Many programs that justify your text at both margins add spaces between words to stretch out a line, leaving awkward gaps in the text.

Widows and Orphans
“Widow” lines occur when the last line of a paragraph appears alone at the top of a page. “Orphan” lines occur when the first line of a paragraph, or heading or subheading, appears alone at the bottom of a page. To fix a “widow” or an “orphan,” move a line from the previous page to accompany it or move the line onto the next page. You may allow more than 1 inch at the bottom of a page in order to avoid “widow” and “orphan” lines. Use good judgment in correcting such problems, but avoid placing text within the 1-inch bottom margin.

Most word-processing programs, including Microsoft® Word, have a feature to prevent or fix this error.

In-text Citations
You must identify all sources for other’s concepts, ideas, quotations, or paraphrased text that you have used in your document. Ensure that the author name, publication date, or page number (depending on your style and the type of source) are correct.

Follow your style guide for the treatment of in-text citations in terms of appearance, content, punctuation, and placement.

Wherever you elect to place your notes, they must be formatted consistently throughout the document. All notes should be indicated in the text with corresponding superscript numbers (here1 rather than here1), so that they are distinct from the text. Follow your style guide or journal for the numbering and format of notes. You should single-space each note, and use double-spacing between them. To format a document with endnote or chapter note organization, begin the notes section on a new page. If you use notes, please choose word-processing software that allows for superscripts.

Photographs and Graphics
Each photograph or graphic, like all figures, must be given a number and a caption and must meet margin requirements, reducing the image if necessary. A “LIST OF PHOTOGRAPHS” or “LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS” should also be included in the preliminary pages to assist readers in finding the images.

Should you wish to include photographs or illustrations, you have two options: (1) scanning them; or, (2) reproducing them xerographically (provided that the resolution is clear enough). Whichever method you choose, the resulting image(s) should be sharp with good contrast quality.